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"The lowest, they were finishing up the Death"
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Publish-date-icon October 19, 2011
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ed hardy clothingImages are distant, the confused impressions, but he remembers hearing his father talk about one day of the event of October 17, 1961. He was living in the slums of Sartrouville, and that evening, his father spoke in a low voice, with cousins, beatings, deaths and police violence. "It was in the 1970s, I was about 10 or 12 years. As soon as they realized I was listening, they are silent." Today M'Hamed Kaki has 50 years, he became "smuggler of memory" and it will be to c? Ties of the mayor of Nanterre, Sunday, Oct. 16 to inaugurate the first boulevard of France named after the October 17, 1961 . "This story that France has long forgotten and whose former did not tell us to protect us, I am very proud today," he smiles.

M'Hamed Khaki left school at 14 years, CAP has a roofer, but his appetite for knowledge was quickly changed to "poacher's knowledge": he attended night school, worked as a watchman night at Nanterre University and eventually became an actor. In seven years, the Oranges, the association he founded in 2004, has organized over 60 conferences on the history of colonial and October 17, 1961. "I work in the theater, I am attentive to the body and gestures, and I feel that day, the Algerians looked up and walked upright. For decades, silence covered everything, but Today, we find the memory. It is not the history of Algerians or even the children of immigration, it is all our history, the history of France. "

During the 1970s and 1980s, the memory of October 17, 1961 is wrapped in a thick shroud. Who remembers that autumn day when men, women and children protesting family, unarmed, in the streets of Paris were killed by the police with rifle butts, thrown alive into the Seine, found hanged in the woods? "It's just one of the few times since the nineteenth century, when police fired on workers in Paris," says the historian Benjamin Stora. In the weeks that followed, dozens of dead Algerians with swollen faces are drafted into the Seine. Benjamin Stora think the punishment was a hundred deaths, the English historian Jim House "at least" 120 or 130,ed hardyJean-Luc Einaudi, author of The Battle of Paris, more than 150.

That day, the "Fran? Ais Muslim Algeria" protesting the call of the Federation of the FLN in France against the curfew had been imposed by the Commissioner of Police of Paris, Maurice Papon. Usually confined to the slums of the suburbs, more than 20,000 men, women and children then marched peacefully through the streets of the Latin Quarter, on the Grands Boulevards, near the Champs-Elysées. Police violence is unheard of? E: agents are waiting to exit the subway and the streets to beat them by insulting them. "The weak, those who were already in blood, they were finishing up the death, I saw him," tell, in 1997, Saad Ouazen at a meeting of commemoration organized by the Movement against Racism and for Friendship among Peoples (MRAP). Although they offer no resistance, dozens of demonstrators were shot dead, others drowned in the Seine. In total, more than 11,000 Algerians were arrested and transferred to the Palais des Sports stadium or Pierre de Coubertin.

Packed for several days in appalling sanitary conditions, they are severely beaten by police, who deal with "dirty wogs" and "miss". At the Palais des Sports, the internees in terror dare not go to the bathroom, because most of those who may be killed. "Three days like? Was sitting on a chair, or to eat or drink or a cigarette, nothing. Around me there were five or six who were injured. It was there, we all cry . It was believed all die, "said Ali Djermane scenes in the war in Algeria in France, Jean-Luc Einaudi (Le Cherche Midi, 2009). The next morning, the prefecture officially identifies three deaths - two Algerians and a Fran? Ais metropolis. The lie moved. Silence SOON? T cover it. It will last more than twenty years.

This long absence, in the consciences and the massacre of October 17, 1961 Benjamin Stora is not surprising. "In those years, France largely ignored the history of Algeria, he recalls. When I was doing my thesis in the late 1970s, I was the only student of the historian and specialist of Algeria Charles Robert Ageron: no one was interested in colonial history, the great names of the Algerian political history were unknown, my thesis has not even found a publisher. There was a huge misunderstanding of the one called the native or immigrant,ed hardy women outerwear that is to say the other. When we have this perception of the world, how do you think is interested in immigrants living in slums the Paris region? Algerians were "invisible" in French society? ease. "

In this indifference of public opinion in addition, in the months after October 17, a cover-up conducted by the government. In the Senate, the committee requested by Defferre is ruled firmly, it would only "take a little doubt, a little cloudy, a bit of confusion in the minds and hearts of many officials police, "said Minister of the Interior Roger Frey. On October 27, Claude Bourdet, editor of the magazine France Observateur, demand - in vain - a commission of inquiry to City Council of Paris. "What we need is very simple and clear: the authorization and sufficient boats (to put the Algerians), respond Councillor Alex Moscovitch. The problem would be to sink the vessels is not Unfortunately, the City Council of Paris. "

The stories that challenge the official version is censored: October in Paris, the film that Jacques Panijel turns in the wake of the massacre, was secretly planned in the capital in 1962, but the coils are seized by police - it appears today ' Today in theaters. Fran? Ois Maspero attempts to edit a book by journalist Colette Peju, but it is forbidden. The amnesty accompanying the independence of Algeria in 1962, then seal the silence of French society? Ease: all complaints are classified. "I was 6 years old in 1961 and I was in the event with my parents, says Samia Messaoudi, co-founder of the association on behalf of the memory. One day in high school, I made a point of fran? Ais on October 17, but my teacher did not understand: she thought that I confused with Charonne. When I spoke of the dead 1961 around me, people did not believe me. "

Charonne erase the memory of the few memories indeed of October 17: In commemoration of the annual demonstration against the OAS of February 8, 1962, which caused nine deaths, the SFIO and the Communist Party hope to ward off the bad memories of the years 1956 - 1962. "After the Evian agreements, the left, very embarrassed,ed hardy women tops trying to forget his hesitations during the war, says Benjamin Stora. The SFIO voted special powers in 1956 and the PC has long campaigned for peace, not necessarily for independence. The celebration of the dead Charonne to install in the national imagination the idea that there was in France, long a political resistance against the war in Algeria. It is a fa? on, to the left to hide his mistakes. "

Despite the silence, the memory of October 17 survives here and there, fragmented, exploded underground. She is alive, well s? R, Algerian immigrants in the Paris area, who can forget the corpses abandoned on the sidewalk, friends seriously injured, neighbors who never returned. "These men were talking with each other or in the associations of the event, but most have not passed the memory of this event to their children, says the English historian Jim House. In the 1980s, they know, even if they find it hard to admit, that their children will stay in France, and they are afraid of jeopardizing their future by telling the police violence they have suffered. "

When Jean-Luc Einaudi begins to gather evidence of Algerians in the 1980s and 1990s, many speak to their children for the first time. "I have often seen old men were Algerians who remained silent throughout their lives collapsing in tears in front of their family. They did not talk about because it was too painful, although s? R, but also that they did not cause reactions of revolt against France. " It had chosen the way the father of M'Hamed Kaki, who was silent until his death in 2001. "He thought that to be respected, an immigrant had to be quiet and smooth, his son said. He wanted to protect us, that we have to avoid these awful images in my head."

In those years, the date of October 17 evokes no memories especially among the vast majority of Fran? Ais. Only the PSU, the extreme left and the heirs of the anti-colonialist movement are trying to live the memory of the Algerian anti-repression. "This memory is almost illegal in any case secondarisée," says the scholar Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison, the author of several books on colonization. The historian Pierre Vidal-Naquet, director Jacques Panijel, journalist Claude Bourdet, editor Fran? Ois Maspero trying to rouse consciences, but the fate of the Algerians in 1961 does not interest many people. "There was a huge gap between the small group who belonged to the October 17 Black History Hall of Fame of the Republic and the absolute ignorance of the majority," says Patrick Rotman, ed hardy women knitsauthor of several books on the war in Algeria and writer of the first TV drama on October 17.

It will arrive at the adulthood of the second generation of Algerian immigration to shake up the landscape of memory depth. These young people have attended school in the Republic, they are French citizens and voters? Ais, but they have the intuition that prejudice and scornful glances against them are related to the war in Algeria. "Often these children of immigrants feel that there is a strong link between hostility towards them, particularly among the police and what happened to their parents decades ago, historian Jim House analysis. They do not really know October 17, 1961, but they find that there is in France, a continuity in the negative portrayal of the Algerian, who was called before the "wog". "

At the March against racism and for equal rights in 1983, bringing together 100 000 people in the streets of Paris, a dozen young people from immigrant families gather to pay tribute to drowned by the Algerian police. "We realized that this story was obscured important for our dignity and our parents, says the director Mehdi Lallaoui, organizer of the march and co-founder of the association on behalf of the memory. It has launched a working memory that over several years: find testimonials, archival photographs. "

Gradually, the memory wakes up: in the same year 1980, Jean-Luc Einaudi began a huge research work on October 17. He collected dozens of testimonies and peel all the archives of Paris cemeteries, unions and associations, the documents of the Federation of the FLN and France the official records of the municipal council of Paris, the National Assembly and the Senate when his book comes out, the year of the thirtieth anniversary of the October 17, the shock: The Battle of Paris, which takes the hourly sequence of events and the silence that ensued, prompting a debate about the repression against the Algerians.

With this book and others, the memory of October 17, ed hardy women hoodies1961 begins to enter the public space: in the year 1991, television broadcasts in prime time a documentary by Benjamin Stora on "Algerian years" that lingers long on October 17, and the association on behalf of the memory was created. Two documentaries followed by feeding the memory of October 17: The Silence of the river, Agnes Denis and Mehdi Lallaoui in 1991 and missing a day of Philip Brooks and Alan Hayling, awarded in 1993 by the FIPA gold International festival of audiovisual programs. The authorities of the time, however, still adhere to the official truth: that the work of historians multiply, Maurice Papon stubbornly evokes the "dead mythical" of 1961.

According to historians and activists of memory, it is justice that comes into play: the trial of former head of Vichy in 1997 in Bordeaux, judges dwell at length on October 17, 1961. Faced with Jean-Luc Einaudi, former Prefect of Police finally admitted "fifteen or twenty dead" in this "unfortunate event" but attributes them to the settling of scores between Algerians. For the first time, the authority made a gesture: the Prime Minister, Lionel Jospin, open archives, while the interior minister, Jean-Pierre Chevenement, a mission entrusted to a State Councilor. Based solely on the input register of the Institute of Forensic Medicine - most of the archives of the prefecture and brigade river mysteriously disappeared - he concluded in 1998 that there was at least 32 dead.

Two years later, justice is again rena? Be October 17: Maurice Papon decides to continue Jean-Luc Einaudi for defamation. Ill take him: protesters, witnesses and retired police officers marched to the bar to tell the "carnage". This time, Papon admits thirty dead, but the court gave him wrong: paying tribute to the character "serious, relevant and complete" the work of Jean-Luc Einaudi, the judges noted that "some members of law enforcement, relatively numerous, acted with extreme violence, under the influence of a desire for retaliation. " Violence that has manifested "hot" at the event, but also "cold" in detention centers, "was not justified by the behavior of activists that night,"ed hardy women dresses concluded the trial.

The official version of October 17 is now in tatters. The time has come for the commemoration. At the 40th anniversary in 2001, the mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delano?, Enter on the Pont Saint-Michel plaque "in memory of many Algerians killed during the bloody repression of the peaceful demonstration on October 17, 1961." In the Paris region, twenty plaques or headstones register now these days fall in the collective memory. Tensions remain high - in 2001, the RPR and the UDF voted against the placing of the plaque of St. Michael - but the climate has changed. "In 2005 when I wrote the screenplay for the first fiction on October 17, Black night, it was over hot embers of passion at the time of the story, says Patrick Rotman. Black night trying to elsewhere comprise more than denounce. "

It took thirty or forty years to 17 October 1961 to become a page in the history of France. A generation, almost two. The time that political leaders of the 1960s left the stage, which historians work free from passions, the official archives open, and especially the children of Algerian immigrants born in France are growing. "For some very painful, there is often a time of mysterious silence, sighs the director Mehdi Lallaoui. The years put things at a distance, the words become possible. The occultation was nearly successful, but on October 17 ended up being shared memory, common, taken by all citizens: it was necessary for us to build bridges of brotherhood between France and Algeria. "

The puzzle of collective memory eventually recover, but for many it is still missing one piece: the recognition of the state. "We're not asking that France is on his knees to say his repentance, says Mr. Lallaoui. We do not want vengeance or punishment. We would like to simply state called what happened that day." "Knowledge of October 17 is there, but it only highlights the lack of recognition of the crime of state, the university said Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison. We need to make a symbolic justice to the victims of 1961. This requires a public statement of the highest authorities of the State. "

The government of Fran? Ois Fillon does not seem to consider the slightest gesture, but over the years, Mehdi has become Lallaoui patient.ed hardy women denim "If not this government, it will be another," he said with a smile.

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